Rationale for Correct Answer

The correct answer is: Some differences in treatment outcomes by race are attributable to genetic variants

Multiple genetic variants associated with either IBD disease characteristics or response to therapy vary with race.1,2 Many aspects of IBD presentation vary with race, such as more extensive inflammation occurring in non-White populations.2 Socioeconomic status (SES) is another factor underlying health care disparity, and patients with IBD and lower SES have, on average, greater health care utilization, including increased hospitalization, surgery, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits.2 Black, Asian, and Hispanic patients are substantially underrepresented in clinical trials, relative to the US population.3

1. Liu JZ et al. Nat Genet. 2015;47(9):979-86;
2. Barnes EL et al. Gastroenterology. 2021;160(3):677-89;
3. Liu JJ et al. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2023;29(2):297-307.